Ka hangaia ngā momo matū katoa (ahakoa totoka, wē, haurehu rānei) ki te ngota. He mōkitokito te ngota – e hia miriona ngota kei tētahi korakora puehu kotahi! He iraoho kei te karihi o te ngota, he whana tōrunga (+) tō ngā iraoho. He irahiko e amio haere ana i te karihi, he whana tōraro (‒) tō ngā irahiko. He ōrite te maha o ngā iraoho me te maha o ngā irahiko o tētahi ngota, arā, ka kīia he hiko ngū. Mēnā ka ngaro he irahiko i tētahi ngota, ka kīia he whana tōrunga (+) tō taua ngota nā te mea he maha ake ngā iraoho i ngā irahiko. Mēnā ka piri atu he irahiko anō ki tētahi ngota, ka kīia he whana tōraro (‒) tō taua ngota nā te mea he maha ake ngā irahiko i ngā iraoho. Mēnā he whana hiko tō tētahi ngota, ka kīia he katote.
All matter (whether solid, liquid or gas) is made up of atoms. Atoms are extremely small – a speck of dust has over a million atoms. The nucleus of the atom contains protons which have a positive charge. There are electrons moving around this nucleus, which have a negative charge. The number of protons in an atom is equal to the number of electrons, so it is electrically neutral. However, if an atom loses electrons, it becomes positively charged because it has more protons than electrons. If an atom gains electrons, it becomes negatively charged because there are more electrons than protons. When an atom becomes charged, it is called an ion.
whana - thrust, impel, charge, rush
hiko - electricity